Xeact: The femtoframework you've been waiting for

Thu Jan 25 2024

Warning to readers

This talk is about a shitpost that got way out of hand. Out of respect for the material, this talk is also a shitpost and a work of satire. In order to help make this talk teach you things, I have included technical deep dives into aspects of how and why Xeact works. I hope you enjoy it and you can learn...something useful.

Please don't repeat any of the absurd acts mentioned here in production. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this talk. You are the one copying and pasting my code samples into production.

Otherwise, kick back, grab a beverage, and enjoy the ride.

This post is a work of fiction. All events, persons, companies, and other alignment with observable reality are the product of the author’s imagination and are either purely coincidence or used in a fictitious manner. These serve as backdrops to characters and their actions, which are wholly imaginary. The company Techaro as depicted in these stories, does not exist and is purely a vehicle for satire and storytelling.


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Slide 2024/xeact/001

Hi, I'm Xe. I'm the Philosopher-in-Chief at Techaro. You might know me from my blog or other hit talks I've given like "AI, the not-so-good parts", or "Reaching the Unix philosophy's logical conclusion with WebAssembly", but today I'm not going to talk about any of my employers.

Today I'm talking about Xeact. It's the femtoframework that your editor has been waiting for. As I mentioned, Xeact is a femtoframework. It's designed to help you make your websites load faster, work with the script tag, and overall helps you live your life with love and light. It is the perfect basis for your projects and should scale infinitely.


Slide 2024/xeact/003

React is a framework. It gives you all the goodness of working on the front end, but sometimes it's a bit too big for what you need. So you reach for Preact. Preact has a lot of the benefits of React, but it's smaller, which makes it more adaptable and easier to understand. Xeact is even smaller. It's a femtoframework, which takes ideas from both React and Preact to get you the smallest possible bundle that can do what you need.

Today I'm going to cover the foundations of Xeact, how it works, what I learned in the process, and then we're going to look into the future with the help of Techaro.

So our industry is based heavily on design. Design is the heart of our products and it's what our users crave. When I started working on Xeact, I just started working right on the design first and foremost. Here are the core principles that I used for designing Xeact.

I wanted the source code to be understandable because let's face it, when you're debugging things, knowing what's going on means you know what's going on. Computer programming is complicated. There's a lot of indirection and access layers and everything that just makes it difficult to understand. I want the source code of Xeact to fit inside your mental model so that you don't have to think about it. It's beautiful.

Zero compile steps. Two steps is too many. If you have more than a script tag, you're doing it wrong. That's my hope at least. Less time spending deploying your product, more time spending disrupting the burrito delivery industry or whatever.

I want the source code to fit on a t-shirt because open source maintainer burnout is real and one of the main reasons why it happens is because people don't get paid adequately for their work. This way, by having the source code available on the t-shirt, you open up merchandising possibilities that help people make up for the lost income spent working on open source.

And the entire thing GZipped should fit inside 500 bytes. Egress bandwidth? Expensive. One gigabyte through managed NAT gateway? Seven U.S. pennies. That adds up. The less amount of money you spend per user, the more money you make per user. Xeact saves you time, grief, your money, and saves your company from bankruptcy.

So, in the beginning, it started out with a function like this.

const mkNode = (name, data = {}, children = []) => {
  let result = Object.assign(document.createElement(name), data);
  return result;

In the beginning, the make node function was created. This has made a lot of people very happy and has been widely regarded as a good move. In this young state, this function is small, nimble, adaptable, and with it came syntax that only a Haskeller could love. But that's okay because I love Haskell.

const blockQuote = (text) =>
      class: "p-4 border-l-4 border-gray-400 bg-gray-100 text-lg font-semibold",
          class: "text-lg font-semibold",

HTML is just a tree, right? Why should our code hide this? You can kind of see it, right? That kind of resembles how a tree of elements is. And if you're in the back and you can't see it, I just want you to imagine it because it's about as perfect as you think.

With all this in mind, I had to rename this function, this make node function, because that's like, what, six characters and a shift key? You're going to be typing that all the time. It needs to be short, it needs to be rememberable, and most importantly,

It needs to be representative of everything because this is effectively the one function that gives you anything. It's the universal source of meaning and meaninglessness in your program.

Slide 2024/xeact/017

With all this in mind, I had one idea. I looked back into my life, I thought about everything, and one name stood out. This letter came to me in a divine vision with eight fantastic sides and eight awesome angles. This letter is the letter H, and with it came a divine vision that I will repeat now.

One day on the road to Nazareth, Jesus Christ met with a group of theologians. The theologians realized who he was and stood with him. Jesus looked upon them in confusion and said unto them, "Who do you say that I am?"

All at once they replied, "You are the astrological manifestation of the ground of our being, the kerygma of which we find the ultimate meaning in our interpersonal relationships. You are the source of love and life in the world. The foundation, the savior, the alpha, the omega, the beginning, the end, all and nothing simultaneously, and we love you for it all."

Upon hearing this, Jesus was taken back a bit. This was a bit much for him, and he was confused. After some time, he replied, "What the fuck are you talking about"? Panic sprung up among the theologians. They had just confused their savior. They had sullied the thoughts of their messiah. The silence deafened the field.

After some time, one of the theologians managed to speak up. And they spoke. "h".

Jesus was enlightened.

const blockQuote = (text) =>
      class: "p-4 border-l-4 border-gray-400 bg-gray-100 text-lg font-semibold",
          class: "text-lg font-semibold",

This is the name of the function. Now let me paste that code from earlier, but with the proper name. It just takes the name of a tag, the list of attributes to apply, and the list of children. And that's it. That's the entire thing. That's the entire femto framework. Everything else is just a bunch of helpers to make things more convenient, like plain text nodes or removing all the children or grabbing specific things out of the tree or debouncing or onload handlers. But, you know, that's just standard JavaScript stuff that I just remade because you can't stop me.

So, this made everything a lot more easy because I could just assemble the nodes in the way that I understood, which, because I have back end brain rot syndrome, I just need to do in functions.

And this made Xeact a success.

With this shitpost, I was finally able to understand how to make frontend UI stuff work. I finally understood how to get an HTTP fetch, parse the JSON, crap out a bunch of nodes, and then throw it on the page for people to understand what's going on. And then this basically unblocked everything else so that I could use everything else normally.

However, in the process, there was one small problem. Semantic satiation. If H is supposed to mean everything and it's everywhere, it loses its meaning. This cannot stand.

So I ended up creating a library to help with it and I made the femtomixin Xeact HTML. If you look over the code of a bunch of all the popular websites, you'll see that they use like 15 HTML tags. And even then, you can put them into three categories, like stuff that usually takes attributes and children, stuff that only takes attributes or stuff that stands bu itself, like the horizontal rule tag.

const blockQuote = (text) =>
      class: "p-4 border-l-4 border-gray-400 bg-gray-100 text-lg font-semibold",

With this knowledge, you can break this down into a list of things, and then you can create functions for all of them. So here's that same block quote function, but with you know the function blockquote to create a blockquote. Wow, so easy! And this is where things really started making sense because it was a lot easier for me to look at this token soup and then imagine what it would look like. Press f5. It shows up. I feel unstoppable.

It was just a continuous series of golden moments that made me a real full stack developer: kernel to front end.

console.log(`import { h, t } from "./xeact.js";`);
console.log(`const $tl = (kind) => (text, attrs = {}, children = []) => {
    return h(kind, attrs, children);

].forEach((tag) => console.log(`export const ${tag} = $tl("${tag}");`));

So in order to make this and not lose whatever shred of sanity I had left, I made a code generator. This is a JavaScript program that prints JavaScript code to standard output so that you can include it in your JavaScript code. It's kind of beautiful. Again, if you're in the back, you can't see it because I'm very bad at formatting code, just imagine like a bunch of things in a list and then some small forEach at the bottom with an arrow function to actually generate the code. It's a lot more beautiful in practice than it looks.

At this point, I feel like I need to clarify something very important. I'll circle back to Xeact, but just trust me where I'm going with this. I have a plan.

I'm not an Arch Linux user (by the way), but do use something else that continues to be a source of wisdom.

I use Emacs rigged to act like Vim. One of the main things about Emacs that continues to give me inspiration is extensibility in its own little language called Emacs Lisp.

If you've never used Lisp before, it is a very unique kind of violence where lists are the core data type of everything where everything is your code and your data. Yes, you can represent data and code in the same way. And this allows you to create new code on the fly with while making it impossible to make something that won't parse.

ELISP> (+ 3 4)

So, by default, when you make a list in Lisp, it's considered a code list. This is something that just immediately gets evaluated. Like, for example, adding the numbers 3 and 4 and getting 7.

ELISP> '(+ 3 4)
(+ 3 4)

This is nice and all, but sometimes you need to make data. So they have this concept of quoting a list to get the data associated with it. This is so common that it's considered one of the core functions in Lisp. I think, like, McCarthy has a paper that's, like, 11 functions that you can use to bootstrap the entire Turing complete world. It's quite a paper, but it is very old and has some 1970s-isms in it.

But if you notice, you either get all code or all data. Sometimes you need to go halfsies.

That's why they have this magic thing called quasi-quoting. When you're assembling complicated things, you will need to mix code and data together. Quasi-quoting effectively lets you mix the two. Things normally get quoted, as in you normally have data, but then you can use a comma to unquote or inject the code value into it.

ELISP> (let ((user-name "Xe")
             (user-email "xeact@xeserv.us"))
            `((user . ,user-name)
              (email . ,user-email))))

So for example, for the sake of argument, I have this associative list, which is probably known as a hash map in any sensible language. And I have some variables with let for the user name and user email. And I build an associative array and I get it back. And why would you use this? JSON. That's why you would use it. You mix literal names with variable code.

So if quasi-quoting lets you mix code and data to tree-like structures, and we mostly deal with web applications that deal with elements in a tree, what else could we do with this?

HTML. HTML is a tree and we often need to mix literal data and variable data. So what if we put this all, what if we add this all up and put it together?

It turns out there's prior art here. I'm not the first person to come up with the idea of JSX, but JSX is a compiler for JavaScript that lets you mix HTML literal code and variable JavaScript data, and it will just transparently compile to all the right JavaScript things under the hood. It's really nice because it's impossible to create invalid HTML syntax trees. Well, normally impossible. Otherwise you found a bug in the JSX compiler, but that's a different story.

export const jsx = (tag, data) => {
  let children = data.children;
  delete data.children;
  const result = h(tag, data, children);
  result.classList.value = result.class;
  return result;

So I experimented and in the process, I decided to see what would happen if I broke that core tenant of zero compile steps. The efficiency gains that you do this are phenomenal because code and data mixed together is just such a lovely pattern that I thought was a waste of time until I started doing it. I was wrong initially because I thought the extra step would just be another layer of annoyance, but it worked out pretty great.

And yeah, what is this? Didn't you just make a big show about not needing a compile step?

I never said you need to use JSX with this. It turns out that my H function is depressingly similar to react createElement function. So with this five line monster, I'm able to adapt it into the create element into the JSX signature that it wants. And you know, you're off to the races. You, if you want, you activate the JSX runtime, you write your backwards PHP all you want, and you're good to go. Instant deployment to any cloud, including no cloud. And like I said, don't want it. Don't turn it on. Do you want it? Do turn it on. It's great.

Also, if you're deploying with Nix, the idiomatic Xeact deployment process, by the way, you should be able to just have Nix handle it for you, and then you don't even have to think about thinking about it. It's really great.

It was really easy to get a basic Xeact JSX runtime created because of that similar function signature, but there was one key thing that it missed. Components.

However, components in React are just functions, asterisk. All you have to do is detect if the HTML tag name argument is a function and then call it. So I did just that.

const h = (name, data = {}, children = []) => {
  const result =
    typeof name == "function"
      ? name(data)
      : Object.assign(document.createElement(name), data);
  if (!Array.isArray(children)) {
    children = [children];
  return result;

And this is the current h function in the open source repo. This allowed me to have, this allowed with everything else, let me have modern syntax, compiler handrails, and a minimal JavaScript workflow at the same time. And not to mention, I had compatibility with React...


At this point, I had a very nice situation going on. I'd reached version 0.69.71. It was all in a private repo, internal to work. And the world of front end that had eluded me for so long was finally within my grasp and I was able to understand what the JavaScript runes did and bend them to my chaotic-good will.

In a moment, I knew where this place could be, this new power could be used for good. I saw a place where it could fit in, and I saw a feature gap and jumped to fill it.

It was for an internal tool, as one does, called DAB, data about business. It was effectively a sidebar for the support UI, so the support people didn't have to open as many tabs when they were trying to debug what was going on. It was designed with the kind of UI that only a terminal hacker could love, yet it was ruthlessly effective enough that when I deployed it in testing, and then realized that it showed up for the support people by default, because who would think about having something that doesn't show up by default for support, they were like, this is amazing, this has already cut down our ticket response time in half, so I knew I was onto something, so I just kept going.

It was a success thanks to Xeact.

It was then that I realized that the world needs this power of Xeact for their single page applications. Sometimes you only need to view some stuff that requires poking an API, and Xeact fits that goal, hackery tools that display simple information.

Xeact remains open source software to this day, where it is used by thousands of milli-developers.

However, when I got to a certain scale, I realized that I made another mistake here. I was missing something very important that made it impossible to scale beyond those simple hackery tools to view web forms. I was missing the fact that React components are monads.

This isn't gonna be a monad tutorial. There's no burritos here. But the small reason, the reason why I was missing this is because of a fifth design principle that is a secret and will now be revealed.

The separation of Church-Turing and state. The idea is that the state was supposed to be external to your Xeact components. And you know, the Xeact components were just supposed to render HTML notes. And this sounds insane, but it does work for very small tools like that. It just doesn't scale to the levels that I wanted to do something more complicated, like a form for filling out and creating a server in one of my other projects.

I kind of regret this in the long run. So I remade it. I remade things to make it better. React components are monads because they have effects and they can leech into each other. And there's a whole bunch of math that you can talk about here. But the important thing is that they're just monads. The important part is that what I had was not monads. I needed to have effects and ways to handle state.

So one of the main ways that you handle state in React is with this thing called useState. It's effectively a container for data. You put the data in on one end, it triggers re-renders on the other, and you know, it just works sorta. The only thing is that you need to implement the hook system and I'm crazy, but I'm not crazy enough to re-implement React's hook system in a weekend.

const useState = (x = undefined) => [() => x, (y) => (x = y)];

So I made the Xeact version of useState, which is this golfed monstrosity. It is a mutable variable that returns a getter and a setter. This is effectively a burrito around the data. It lets you change what value X points to so that you can build up state with a text area and then grab it out when you're submitting it to a fetch call. It doesn't trigger re-renders because, again, I didn't want to reinvent React hooks for a very good reason, but the surprising part is that this works.

Oh, by the way, fun cursed JavaScript fact for you. The reason that this works is because function arguments are mutable references. You can redefine what function arguments are in a function, and that just works. Try it in production with some people that are more junior and newer to JavaScript. You'll never expect what happens next.

At this point, I thought Xeact was basically perfect. It had all the features I want, none of the features I didn't, and here's just where I decided to stop working on it, not because I lost interest or anything. Xeact made my front end tasks as hard as I wanted to make them. I could go from thought to photon in seconds and there was no madness unless I felt like it.

Grug brain make you want dot key work? I added TypeScript types everywhere, so the dot key worked. Absolutely beautiful. Full TypeScript for the entire femtoframework.

It has mature and robust integrations with tools like Nix to automate your production deployments so you can get back to disrupting the burrito drone delivery industry. Don't think about minutiae. Go back to innovation. Xeact is the femtoframework that developers love. Don't believe us? See the testimonials for yourself.

Slide 2024/xeact/067

Our engineering team was blown away. This is versatile, powerful, and constantly updated. It's everything we've wanted and more.

Slide 2024/xeact/068

This software's cloud backend has only been hacked twice so far this year.

Slide 2024/xeact/069

It shouldn't crash until the heat death of the universe.

Slide 2024/xeact/070

Oh God, where are my hands? Why have you taken my hands away from me?

Overall, you can see that Xeact is an obvious choice for your front end projects. Small, fast, and...small. Xeact scales to your needs or your money back, and you didn't pay me.

However, Xeact only focuses on the front end. There's a whole other half of the stack to look at and a whole other half of that stack to look at. What would Xeact for the backend look like?

We think there's room for the Xeact way to be taken to the backend where it belongs. That's right. At the end of October last year, Techaro acquired Xeact. All the existing cloud services were shut down and refunds were issued to all affected customers with only 24 hours of notice. However, in the process, Xeact has become more and more popular.

Slide 2024/xeact/074

In the process, we have a unique opportunity to ideate some more synergy and really disrupt everything. We're going to revolutionize the concept of disruption. With Techaro, we are going to make the Xeact development flow for the backend and the front end at the same time using PILK, or Putting Individual Lookups in Kubernetes. This will allow you to make infinitely scalable backend services as easily as you can make infinitely scalable front end services.

Legacy frameworks like Next.js make it easy to mix front-end and back-end code, but they have limitations when it comes to scaling it. What happens when your search route uses too many resources and blocks your credit card processing route and you just turned off the money generator and you can't generate money anymore?

We can't stand for this. Why do we accept this as an industry?

Slide 2024/xeact/076

So we are leveraging the power of PILK to automagically put every server function into its own auto-scaling group with Kubernetes with its own URL that changes it every single time. Every deploy, so your backend is also unscrapable. Take that, ArchiveTeam!

It's infinitely scalable. Everything has its own execution context and your cloud provider will love you. This makes PILK a win-win-win scenario for everyone involved. Your front-end logic? Easy. Your backend logic? Easy. Your SREs, they'll have nothing to do and they'll be very bored.

Maybe even so bored, they'll invent a sarcastic JavaScript framework with a bunch of bad jokes.

And this allows the Xeact to advance you towards infinity. Looking back, we saved developers from the despair of Webpack with the power of the script tag. We covered the amazing might of naming and how choosing good names makes the Xeact experience what developers crave. We covered JSX, quasi-quoting, DAB, and the useState monad. And then finally, we looked towards the future with the sheer glory of PILK.

It's obvious.

Xeact is the perfect choice for your server applications. If you want it to happen on the front-end, use Xeact. If you want it to happen on the backend tomorrow, use PILK.

Slide 2024/xeact/081

By the way, a little disclaimer, the entire preceding talk was a work of satire. All characters, companies, or events referenced in this talk are products of my imagination and thus fictional. Any synergy with observable realities is purely coincidental. I was not speaking for any of my employers' past, present, or future, and ha-ha, gottem.

Slide 2024/xeact/082

Thanks for having me tonight, and I hope you learned some-

(thunderous applause)

Thanks for having me tonight. I hope you learned...something. By the way, when I was writing this talk, I put at least one joke about the industry in it. Extra credit if you can tell me what it was. If I don't get to your questions, email xeact@xeserv.us, and I promise I will reply. Otherwise, any questions?



If having small frameworks means you eventually build up all the code that the framework has anyways, do you see that happening with Xeact?

Well, yeah. That's going to happen no matter what you do. That's just kind of how this industry is. And the best way to handle that is to, like, just find something that you can be at peace with and then cry. Or laugh. I think laughing is more healthy than crying. I think that's what my therapist said. Not entirely sure. It was a while ago.

Any more questions?

> How does it handle "rage clicks"?
Mara is hacker

Context: one of the talks talked about how you measure "rage clicks", or repeated clicks to get the UI to do something when things are slow by frustrated users.

It handles rage clicks thanks to the debounce timer built into the Xeact standard library. And if you forget to debounce it, then you have problems. So don't forget.

> Where is the documentation?

The documentation for Xeact is at github.com/Xe/Xeact. And if you are in doubt, read the source code. Because the source code is designed to be readable. Asterisk.

> Did you actually make the Xeact source code T-shirt?

Oh, the T-shirt, right? I was actually going to get a T-shirt as a bit. But I thought about that idea after the logistics wouldn't work out.

Facts and circumstances may have changed since publication. Please contact me before jumping to conclusions if something seems wrong or unclear.

Tags: js, react

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