My VR Hell on NixOS

Published on , 5091 words, 19 minutes to read

Recently I got a new VR setup that uses my tower directly instead of the wifi streaming catastrophe. I have a Valve Index and an AMD RX6700XT GPU. Some huge advantages of this setup include:

As expected, it works great on Windows. As the title infers, it does NOT work well for me on NixOS.

Numa is delet

This is not a blogpost, it's a cry for help.

Here is the saga of things I have tried.


First I tried the naïve route. I just plugged everything in and decided to see what happens with SteamVR. I installed SteamVR through NixOS natively (specifically choosing the "pretend to be Ubuntu" route in order to minimize downsides due to ABI demons), and the headset showed right up.

I opened SteamVR and I got a prompt asking me to make some changes with root. I was expecting this, doing stuff with raw hardware like you need to with VR does require some root privileges, and this was likely for blessing the SteamVR programs to not require running as root all the time. I hit yes, typed in my password and SteamVR stopped showing as "Launching" on the Steam UI.

I killed Steam completely and then relaunched it from a terminal so I could see the logs to standard out.

Mara is hacker

Pro tip, apparently GNOME runs every application in its own systemd slice (which really does explain why GNOME has a hard requirement for systemd as well as why the "Force Quit" button actually seems to work reliably and clean up all the associated clutter in one fell swoop), so you can fetch this stuff from your user journal with systemctl --user status to find the slices (type /steam and hit the enter key to search for it) and journalctl --user -u $name.slice to look through their output that way.

Turns out that the blessing was to give the SteamVR compositor permissions to run as a real-time process. This makes sense. VR is something where minor delays can be the difference between being totally fine and puking your guts out due to motion sickness. Running the VR compositor as a realtime process is completely understandable because it reduces the chance of any possible delay in the scheduler.

However, on NixOS this just makes the SteamVR compositor crash for some reason. Never really got a good answer as to why, just that you should never let it set those permissions for any reason.

So to get it even to a point where things would work, I told Steam to completely delete SteamVR and then reinstalled it from scratch. I hoped that my config would get nuked and I could start over. My config got nuked and I got everything set up again, making sure to choose "No" on the "SteamVR needs root access for additional setup" prompt.

Cadey is enby

As an aside, it seems that most of the people that do VR on NixOS that I know use Nvidia cards. Nvidia drivers on NixOS seem to be significantly less cursed when compared to other distros, however when I built this tower I was building it assuming that I would primarily run NixOS on it. This made me pick an AMD card even though they have slightly less waifus per second compared to their Nvidia counterparts. However the fact that amdgpu is in the damn kernel by default and the AMD team works with mesa to make things work well was the selling point for me. Maybe I should try an Nvidia card?


After that, everything worked as I expected out of the box for playing VRChat, which was surprising. I had switched to Xorg from Wayland a while ago in preparation for this (for some reason VR on Wayland ranges from "lol" to "you're totally screwed"), and I was ready to get off to the races.

Mara is hmm

That Wayland comment seems ominous...

Then I tried to open the SteamVR overlay. Nothing happened. I looked at my controllers in VR and it seemed like the occlusion model was backwards:

The insides of the controller rendering on the outside

I can deal with this, but it certainly feels weird this way.

Cadey is facepalm

This is when I knew I was in for a ride.

The thing that surprised me the most was that the audio stack worked instantly the way I expected. All the audio moved over to the headset and the default microphone device was set to the headset and EVERYTHING RESPECTED THAT WITH NO FURTHER CONFIGURATION.

Cadey is facepalm

This article is mostly about struggles with Linux, but the struggles with Windows are real too. For some reason on Windows the default speaker device will get moved over to the Index without issue, but the default microphone will not. I have not been able to find any way to fix this and it doesn't happen with my husband's Index so I assume this is just either me or Discord being utterly and irrevocably cursed beyond repair.

Not having the SteamVR overlay is a nonstarter for me. I use the SteamVR overlay to move between games, tweak graphic settings on the fly and fiddle with the desktop should I need to.


So I started tinkering with settings, kernel versions and more to try to get more things working. Keep in mind that at this point I had a mostly functional setup on NixOS. I could play games, but the ergonomics for moving between games ranged from "lol" to "walk over to the PC every time to open the game manually and wait for the shaders to compile".

I had heard that the flatpak version of Steam was less cursed by a friend of mine who seems utterly convinced that flatpak is the next coming of sliced bread. Flatpak seems like one of those things that you come up with when you want all the advantages of Nix but really really love YAML. Flatpak is a valid strategy for packaging complicated software like this because the sandboxing and discrete platform runtime strategy would make it so much easier to handle the levels of cursed involved with getting otherwise ABI conflicting things to run consistently across distros.

So I tried Flatpak Steam. One annoying part about installing stuff in Flatpak is that Flatpak prefers to put things in .desktop files that are registered to your desktop environment's program launcher instead of putting a name in your $PATH. This also makes sense because they are obviously targeting GUI apps and doing it that way would likely make life a lot easier for GUI apps. Then keep in mind that I want logs to see what is going on so I can have any hope of frantically googling things to understand how to fix this. Mind you this is before the trick involving systemd slices was revealed to me so I didn't have any other way to get output directly.

Cadey is coffee

Yes I know SteamVR on Linux has logfiles. I was in struggle mode and just wanted to be able to scroll up and see what went wrong.

I wrote this script to launch Flatpak Steam called steam2:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
exec flatpak run com.valvesoftware.Steam

I then ran it, logged in, enabled global Steam Play, restarted Steam, installed SteamVR and VRChat and then set up my playspace again. I put on the headset and things didn't totally work. The overlay was still broken. At this point I was starting to have thoughts like:

Mara is hmm

Okay, is NixOS broken, is Steam broken, is SteamVR broken, or am I broken?

At least I was able to log into VRChat and go to a public world. I went to The Black Cat and asked someone there if they could hear me. They could and wondered what was going on. I told them I was from the future and to not worry and then closed VRChat after saying "oh no, the connection is fading, make sure you remember the secret of life, the universe, and everything is-". I had gotten things somewhat working and I was fairly exhausted at this point, so I decided to call it a day and headed to bed.


At the advice of a trusted friend, I tried running everything in Wayland. Wayland works at a much lower level with the GPU, so it should probably have a bit of an easier time. I unmasked wayland sessions and sway from my NixOS config and then rebooted and logged into sway.

Out of the corner of my eye I saw the VR headset light up like it had video rendering to it. This struck me as odd, because there's a special xrandr property to tell display servers "hey you dingus, this isn't a monitor: don't treat it as one":

DisplayPort-1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
	non-desktop: 1
		range: (0, 1)
   2880x1600    144.00

The resolution and refresh rate match the specs for the Index if you put both 1440x1600 panels next to eachother as one big screen (most of the time they do this at the manufacturing/software stage so that game engines can render one weirdly skewed image to the "screen" and not have to manage two separate framebuffers that could get out of sync, turning weaker people into vomit cannons). If you haven't ever tried to look at Discord badly rendered to a VR headset before, you aren't missing out on much. I then made a change to my sway config to tell sway to disable the Valve Index output:

cadey.sway.output."DP-2".disable = "";
Mara is hmm

This is also ominous...

Then I rebuilt my config, sway picked up on it and then turned off the headset view. I launched SteamVR and then it started rendering to the desktop. If you've never seen what it looks like when a VR headset starts rendering to the desktop instead of to the headset directly, it looks something like this:

The SteamVR home, but the raw image that the headset sees. You do not want to see this on your desktop.

I told SteamVR to restart in "direct display" mode, but it was failing because SteamVR couldn't restart due to a missing dynamic library problem:

/home/cadey/.local/share/Steam/steamapps/common/SteamVR/bin/linux64/restarthelper: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

This is not good. I don't have a working setup in Wayland. Sway is fairly low level and boring as far as Wayland compositors go, so an incompatibility here has to point to something much more low level right? Turns out that Wayland (more specifically XWayland) doesn't support the rigging needed in order to have the SteamVR compositor yank a display for itself (specifically via the Vulkan extension VK_EXT_direct_mode_display), so it will probably never work until that is supported.

This is annoying, but understandable to a point. Wayland is still fairly new and has to compete with an ungodly number of hacks that have been put into Xorg over the years for weird cases like this.


So I disabled Wayland/sway in my NixOS config, rebooted (just to be sure, you can never totally be sure with display managers) and then tried SteamVR via native Steam again. Surely it had to work, right?

Nope. It rendered to the desktop again. Hitting restart got that same "cannot open shared object file" error. Restarting it manually got a different error though:

Error starting SteamVR: SteamVR failed to initialized for unknown reasons. (Error: Shared IPC Compositor Invalid Connect Response (307))

This seems to be a sort of "catchall" error in SteamVR for when something really wrong happens at lower parts of the stack. Googling for this mostly got people running into this with Nvidia cards, and nearly always the fix for them was "reinstall your GPU driver". That both doesn't make sense for me and is kind of impossible because my AMD card uses amdgpu, which is a part of the Linux kernel and can't really be "reinstalled" arbitrarily on NixOS.

Mara is hacker

NixOS is effectively a "build everything from source" distribution with a binary cache that is used to cheat your way out of not having to build things from source. So when you "install" a package you are really downloading it from the NixOS cache server (or building it if it doesn't exist there) and then telling Nix to symlink it to the right place. In this model, it doesn't really make sense to be able to "reinstall" packages.

I went through a lot of settings, messed with X and more but got nowhere. I was running strace on the SteamVR compositor at one point but still had no real clear path forward.

The same trusted friend that told me to try Wayland was flabbergasted at this point. This kind of error makes absolutely no sense yet here we are, living it!


I was asked to try a "normal" distribution out. Seeing as that Valve has been like:

The steam logo saying "friendship ended with Debian, now Arch is my best friend" while shaking hands with the Arch linux logo.

I thought that I should choose Arch Linux to verify this against. Arch is the basis for the new version of SteamOS, so surely this should work better, right?

Mara is hmm

What is it with you and being so ominous?

So I downloaded the Arch iso, wrote it to a flashdrive and then booted my tower off of it. My disk layout looks a bit like this:

Disk layout diagram

Cadey is coffee

At some point I am intending to reinstall NixOS on my tower with a ZFS root, but today is not that day.

However the Archive partition is almost completely unused after I moved everything over to the NAS, save a few Steam games that I could just redownload anyways. My Data drive is used mostly for Beat Saber custom songs, Unity project backups and other things I would really rather not wipe out, so I decided to use the Archive drive as my sacrificial lamb for Arch.

Mara is hmm

You mentioned that you put Steam games on the Data drive, given that it's btrfs and this whole article is about things not working on NixOS, how did you even use it?

Cadey is enby

I use winbtrfs to mount btrfs volumes on windows. I'm using btrfs here because at the time I did the partitioning of my drives btrfs was the most Linux and Windows-compatible filesystem that I could use to just store data on both Windows and Linux and have each side access it from the other. I also needed btrfs so that I could put Steam games on it and have Windows and Linux both be able to use them. There's a lot of subtle bugs involved in using NTFS-3g on NixOS with Steam games in particular, so using a native kernel supported filesystem was vital. Otherwise I would have used something better like ZFS.

One of the more painful parts about Arch Linux is that there's no installer. You have to do things by hand. This gives you a lot of power (you can easily do really cursed configs like it was nothing, such as installing Arch on NTFS), but at the same time it means that there is a lot more time investment required to just get the computer working. Recently they added archinstall as an easy way to just install Arch with a known set of defaults. This made it way less painful for me to install Arch to the Archive drive.

I booted into Arch, followed the instructions to run archinstall, went through the prompts, set up a root password, then finally selected the KDE profile.

Cadey is enby

Get it? KDE? Cadey-e?

Numa is delet

Hey Siri, how do you delete someone else's post?

After archinstall claimed victory, I rebooted into Arch and was greeted with a login screen that told me to pick a user and type in a password, but there were no options to pick from. This meant I needed to hack into the system to get to the point where I could login to the desktop.

Cadey is coffee

I was prepared for a fight, but this felt like the installer bit me. I am not sure if this was the result of me using the installer wrong or the installer not caching this case and making me make a user account so that I could log in. I'm not sure if I should file a bug about this or not.

Control-Alt-F1 didn't work. This made me think there was some shenanigans going on with the Xorg config such as disabling the CHVT bindings. So I rebooted into the boot menu and pressed e to edit the boot string. I appended init=/bin/sh to the argument string to force Arch to drop me into a root shell. It proceeded to drop me into a root shell and then dutifully ignored all of my attempts at keyboard input. It behaved like the USB module wasn't loaded, which is weird to me as I usually expect the USB module to be part of the kernel proper. I rebooted back into Arch's login screen to try and rethink my strategies.

After debating getting the PS/2 crash cart keyboard out, my husband tried pressing various Control-Alt-F${N} keys and eventually got one that gave us a login prompt. I felt like a dunce.

I managed to log in and create a user account, then set a password and used that account to hack into the matrix. Once I installed Steam (after enabling multilib and 12 parallel download threads), I launched it to see that it did not detect the VR headset. I suspect that there was probably some group or combination of groups that I missed and I really wanted to have a more curated experience. Steam not detecting the Index really killed Arch for this testing phase and left me frustrated.


Suddenly a glint of philosophical brilliance struck me and I remembered this wisdom:

If it sucks... hit da bricks!

I had a Manjaro USB laying around from when I was trying to sucker my husband into trying to use it, so I threw that into my tower and then replaced Arch with Manjaro. Manjaro is great. You just install it and it works. That's everything I wanted out of this. I wanted to just install the thing and then the computer does the computerbox stuff. It was really cool that Steam came preinstalled!

The default Manjaro experience is really nice. I really like how integrated and snappy the system feels. It's really just Arch with training wheels, but they ship a handbook that is really nice as a reference manual. I should really have started with Manjaro for this part of the process instead of using Arch, but I blame that on the twitter poll. If you want a decent first experience with desktop Linux, try Manjaro out. It's really a lot better than you think it is. Things have gotten so much better than they were in the Vista era when I started using Linux on the desktop.

Mara is happy

Let's be honest, most of your work is done in browsers or electron apps anyways. You'll be fine!

Steam was preinstalled, but sometimes it complained about needing some system libraries to function. This felt weird to me, because Valve started shipping the Steam Linux Runtime which essentially includes all of those libraries, but it turns out that was actually really a problem. I didn't try too hard to solve it though because it was working enough to install and run SteamVR.

I set up SteamVR and it rendered stuff to the headset. This was promising! The SteamVR overlay still didn't work though, but at this point I was almost expecting it. The weird part though was the fact that the SteamVR configuration tool was missing almost all of its UI elements. That pointed me at a few ideas and I ran SteamVR in another terminal window again with no conclusive results.

I did a round of microphone testing, and it looks like the audio from the microphone wasn't being picked up. This was odd, it worked fine in NixOS.

At least I didn't need to be afraid of the setcap hack that SteamVR tries to apply on start. That seems to work reliably without causing issues.


I'm not sure how I came across this Reddit post on /r/ValveIndex, and I am so glad I did. Most of the problems with Steam itself were due to needing to run this command:

sudo pacman -Sy steam-native linux-steam-integration

This will install all of the aforementioned native libraries that Steam was complaining about. Also make sure you are using Xorg for this. At the time of writing this post, Manjaro KDE defaults to using Xorg. In the future you may need to set the default to Xorg. However in the future Valve is probably going to fix the SteamVR on Linux jank (especially if the rumors about project Deckard are true), so it may work fine with Wayland then.

Mara is hacker

Manjaro should really make those packages part of the default install set, if only to make it more seamless.

To fix the microphone (and some minor audio issues with the speakers), you need to change the default audio sample rate of PulseAudio. PulseAudio defaults to a 44,100hz for speakers and microphones. This is normally fine. Most audio is usually at or below there, but the Valve Index expects 48,000hz. The way you get that fixed is to customize the PulseAudio config files for the system and for your user account like so:

  1. Open /etc/pulse/daemon.conf as root using your favorite text editor
  2. Go to the end of the file
    Mara is hacker

    Press G in vim to jump all the way to the end of the current buffer. Conversely gg will take you back to the top.

  3. Add the line default-sample-rate = 48000
  4. Open ~/.config/pulse/daemon.conf as your unprivileged user account
  5. Go to the end of the file
  6. Add the same line
  7. Either reboot your PC or run pulseaudio -k to restart the sound server and pick up those changes
  8. Open the volume control and shout towards your headset, you should see the audio meter moving

The SteamVR overlay not working is actually because of a missing library in the SteamVR library bundle. It is a really dumb one too. The library fontconfig is missing from the installset. They might have assumed that it would be part of the system or something, but its absence makes vrwebhelper crash on launch. Apparently the SteamVR overlay is done by vrwebhelper, so it crashing is doubleplus ungood.

Mara is hacker

These instructions are cribbed from this article from Gaming on Linux.

You can fix it by first identifying where vrwebhelper is installed. At the time of writing, Steam defaults to putting it in this folder:


Open and find the line that looks like this:


and replace it with this:


Then download Steam's vendored version of freetype2 (I made a copy here in case the bitrot fairy strikes again) and put all the files in that archive into your vrwebhelper folder. Restart Steam (and SteamVR) just to be sure, then your VR overlay should work.

Cadey is coffee

Hopefully these hacks should not be needed in the future.

At this point, everything worked. I could play games like nothing was out of place, and the only difference I felt was that it was slightly more bouncy on Manjaro than it was on Windows. I don't totally know how to quantify this feeling or get a good recording of it, but it felt different enough that I feel I need to mention it.

You can still see through your controllers, which I assume is a SteamVR on Linux problem at this point. It's the most bizarre thing, it's like the rendering priority for the controller models is backwards.

I was able to play a few rounds of Beat Saber for testing, and the only downside I noticed was that sometimes a few frames had a shower of green blotches. There was no pattern.


Mara is hmm

There were a couple things earlier in this post that were kinda sus. For one you disabled the Index output in sway with that config change and then it stopped working in Xorg. Was the first line about the headset in xrandr --prop normal? Do you see it in Manjaro?

cadey.sway.output."DP-2".disable = "";
DisplayPort-1 disconnected
Cadey is wat

Why are things 0-based in Xorg but 1-based in Wayland?

So I made this commit to my NixOS configs, rebuilt my config to re-enable Wayland, booted back into sway and then found that it was still broken.

What am I doing wrong here? I'm willing to try any ideas you all have. This is a cry for help. I literally have no idea what I am doing wrong and this is really starting to bother me. Did I taint a state file used by display handling? I thought this stuff was mostly if not entirely stateless to avoid these kinds of problems. Do I need to reinstall NixOS from scratch? Should today be the day that I set up ZFS on my tower? Is this just some kind of weird cruft that has accumulated over a few years even though that should be categorically impossible? Is the flatpak broken with SteamVR? Is the NixOS Steam package broken? What is even going on?

Hopefully I can follow this up with a part 2 containing the really really dumb solution. I've tried everything I can think of and have managed to really confuse a GPU driver developer friend of mine in the process. I just want this to work. I can get my VR fix on Windows in the meantime, but I would really love to be able to do all this from my NixOS install.

Please contact me if you have any ideas.

Facts and circumstances may have changed since publication. Please contact me before jumping to conclusions if something seems wrong or unclear.